CONTEXTUALISATION: Making Sense of my Research throughout my Subject Project.

For the Contextualisation Formative Assessment: I was asked to highlight the relevant contextual references/artists and say how they have influenced my work etc. I thought it would be beneficial for my own understanding and for this presentation to go through my contextualisation and do so.

Starting Point: John Piper – Rocky Valley, North Wales, saw it at the National Museum of Wales Cardiff.

I started this project by identifiying elements of landscape abstraction and mark making in Piper’s work and researched artists that linked to this like: Paul Nash, Frank Auerbach, Anselm Kiefer and John Knapp Fisher. I also looked at artists that inspired John Piper such as Samuel Palmer, JMW Turner and Richard Wilson.

John Piper painted Landscapes he had a connection with, mainly west wales which encouraged me to focus on a landscape close to me – The Brecon Beacons.

However, After reading into John Piper and Romanticism more deeply, my work was no longer simply about Landscape and abstraction. The era of romanticism saw an imaginative approach to landscape painting. Piper adapted more traditional forms of Landscape painting and wanted to capture an experience of being in a particular surrounding, the personalities of the natural objects and a connection with place and nature. This I thought was really inspiring, rather than just painting a flat image, trying to capture a sense of the surrounding and a connection to place and so this is what I started exploring in my work. I looked into the work of Graham Sutherland an artist with similar intentions who wanted to capture an ‘intellectual and emotional’ essence of a place”. This research helped to direct my project rather than just experimenting with inspirations from the starting point piece alone.

Romantics saw the importance of nature and were distrustful of the human world, and tended to believe that a close connection with nature was mentally and morally healthy. Graham Sutherland went on nature walks and collected fragments from nature that he would bring back to the studio to work from. This was the first inspiration for me going out and collecting natural found objects, simply starting out by collecting twigs to draw with. This is where I became really immersed in my work and rather than connecting my landscape work to place and experience I started connecting it to nature and the natural elements within the landscape.

My Research started focussing on artist’s that incorporated nature into their artwork physically. I researched artists such as Paul Schick and Naoko Ito which inspired me to use twigs physically in my work rather than just as drawing tools. Katharina Grosse‘s work emphasised to me the possibilites of soil and how the texure is highlighted when painted. Anya Gallacio highlighted the need to think about ephemerality.

I have never been so inspired by an exhibition as I was after Seeing Anselm Kiefer‘s Exhibition at the Royal Academy of Art. It physically showed me the possibilites of adding unconventional material into the surface of the canvas and mixed into the paint as is probably the biggest influence throughout my project, an artist that I have constantly referred to. I was particularly drawn to a vitrine piece where the foreground was filled with sticks and thorn bushes, and researched this style of work further and it confirmed to me that my work would incorporated and be linked to natural objects that I would collect and use in my art.

I also went to see exhibitions with a connection to nature like Pipilotti Rist and Berlina De Bruckyere.

Terry Setch‘s Estuary Paintings also inspired my inclusion of natural objects in painting. His concepts include an approach to nature and he uses found objects within his work like Debris from the beach and natural matter. Christo and Jeanne Claude’s wrapping of trees and Hamish Fultons ideas made me think about how nature is precious and should be looked after and I made a concious decision not to pick things, only to collect from the ground.

Settled on including natural materials in my work, I also researched and experimented with different ways of connecting with nature and came across the work of Tim Knowles who thinks of “nature as artist”, he sets up the credentials for nature to make art and I did experiment with this, putting drawings out in the rain etc but it wasn’t a key influence on my work and wasn’t as interesting or enjoyable to me as using natural materials.

The work of Stuart Cairns and Bryan Nash Gill inspired me to think of Nature as a tool for art making, creating a connection to nature by painting with tools made from it. This is something that is now integrating into my work and I think combined with nature included into the paint and maybe producing my own natural paints could make for an interesting and successful final outcome.

Environmental art and Land art has become part of my research in terms of the concepts and ideas and the use of materials. Artists such as Andy Goldsworthy and Richard Long made me think about the importance of a connection to nature in art and how it can expose people to nature and make them more aware of environmental issues and the benefits of being out in nature. It is such a shame that natural world is overlooked by many today and incorporating it into art might prevent it being overlooked so much. Also Richard Long’s versatility of ways of working with nature has been at the back of my mind throughout my experimentation. He has touched upon all the things I have worked with loosely, using nature in paint, collaborating with nature and displaying natural materials in a gallery/studio setting rather than just outdoors in the land.

Contextualisation is really important in pushing ideas forward and I would not have made the body of work I have and experimented as much without these influences backing it up.

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CONSTELLATION: Contemporary Art Lecture: POST-FEMINISM by Jon Clarkson

POST-FEMINISM

Modernism and Feminism

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Alexander Rodchenko, Make way for the women 1935 – Geometry symbolising fairness and rationality. There is a socialist/realist element within the work. Making a statement about men and women but from a mans perspective. Male photographer, positive image, portraying a solution to womens equality, but the women are still kind of objects for the men to look at, being seen through the male gaze. Womens action is at the centre of the image. Propogandistic intention.

If the photographer was a women, the image would be viewed really differently and there would be no thought of the women being objectified.

Questions of Identity

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Marc Quinn – Alison Lapper, Pregnant 2005 – It is a sculpture of a working class disabled single mother produced by a middle class able bodied man. Which of these facts is most important? He chose her as an image to sculpt. There is a valued place for women in the world. The sculpture has a heroic element. Bringing equality of women, people with disabilities and single mothers etc. Using language of classical sculpture to comment on the place of people with disabilities in society.

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Sarah Lucas – Get hold of this 1994-5

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Sarah Lucas – Where does it all end? 1995
What are the signs of masculine and feminine in these images? Feminine – Pink, red, lipstick, the opposition between white teeth and red lips. Look like womens arms. Masculine – Snarl, gritting teeth on a cigarette. Takes offensive elements of male culture and asks how poerful it is if a woman does it.

Post-feminism as a term, often comes up in the 1990s.

Feminism and Post-Feminism

Katy Deepwell – 3 popular mis-conceptions about feminism-

That Feminism = Women + Power
That Feminism = Bra burning lesbian separatism
That Feminism = is only a question of gender.
(These are only half truths)

Julia Kristeva outlines the 3 moments of Feminism-

Feminism = Equal Rights
Feminism = Advocacy of a separate women’s culture
Feminism = Total re-evaluation of Ideas of Masculine and Feminine

Equal Rights

One strand of feminist art avoided images of the sexualised female body because in the past these images have been objectified and exploited.

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Mel Ramas – Miss Corn Flakes 1964

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Barbara Kruger – What are you looking at 1994
In small print it says “This is not a mirror”. Targeting the women that look at fashion magazines, saying that you are not looking at what you should aspire to become, it is just another woman.

Another strand produced generalised images of the sexualised female body.

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Judy Chicago – The Dinner Party 1974 – 9
Strong Statement of the cultural status of women. All of the crockery in this piece is stylized female genitals. Falic symbols are normalised in culture, female ones are not as normalized and so she is putting them out there. The idea that Biology is destiny is hindering on Women. A lot of art uses imagery of the female genitalia within it. Is that all that women have in common then? They all have vaginas? Virginia Wolf is one of the women at the table here, aren’t her books and achievements more important than her vagina?

In the 1990s, many artists started using highly sexualised imagery again.

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Helen Chadwick -Vanity 1986
Tracey Emin – Self Portrait 2001
These images can be contrasted with imagery of the Page 3 model.

Pipilotti Rist – I’m not the girl who misses much 1986

She is using the language of titilation, but using video technology to prevent that happening. Wants to deflate through humour. Slowing and speeding up time up to get a state of conciousness. Pipilotto Rist is interested in an innocent sexual experience, a bodily experience. Her work doesn’t talk a page three language, more like a dream state.

Re-evaluation of Masculine and Feminine?

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Jenny Saville, Passage 2004-5
Collier Schort, untitled 2011

Is it possible to transcend ideas of gender in art?
Maybe in these images, the intention is that they are not labelled as a particular gender – equalizing man and woman?

Post-Feminism

This label remains problematic, it suggests that it comes after feminism and can be used in several ways:
– It comes after feminism because feminism has been successful
– It comes after feminism because feminism has failed
– It comes after feminism because it is the antidote to feminism
– It comes after feminism because it is the opposite of feminism
– It comes after feminism because it is the continuation of feminism
There is no definite answer and so the label Post-feminsim is still difficult to determine.

Nan one month after being battered 1984 by Nan Goldin born 1953

Nan Goldin – Nan one month after being battered 1984

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Sarah Lucas – Two fried eggs and a kebab – The male and the female rediced to sexual symbols.
Sarah Lucas – NUDS 2010 – Bodily experience

Girlie

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John Carran – The Wizard 1994
Lisa Yuskovage – Day 1999-2000
Does knowing the gender of the artist change the significance of the painting?

Lucy Lippard in Deepwell p.157
Does the fact that a woman paints a woman neutralise the pornographic source or is it still pornography?

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Lisa Yuskavage – Half Family 2003
This isn’t an image directed at men. It gives off a feelnig that is significant only to women. About the feeling of having a body, not what it looks like.

Masculine and Feminine

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Helen Chadwick – Piss Flowers 1991-2
They peed in the snow and cast the imprint. Some represent the male and some represent the female. The longer, more falic like stamens actually represent the females, this is because there is less movement in the female pee stream. Stereotypically we would think that the more falic sculptures represented the male so this piece is clever and interesting.

Images from the Bad Girls Exhibition 1993

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Helen Chadwick Glossolalia 1992
Contrast of Hard and Soft. Small Falic Symbols, Making a falic symbol in the middle. An image like this would be picked for an exhibition called “Bad Girls” because there is an appeal to the body, Tongues and fur. The togetherness of hair and tongue is often quite repulsive. We reject it without thinking about it. Unconcious Reaction.

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Before this lecture, I had never really considered issues of gender very deeply before. I certainly had not discussed whether the gender of the artist changes the way that the art work is viewed. I have been encouraged to think about certain connotations that certain materials and imagery has in terms of masculine and feminine and been shown how art can cause a divide in opinion. To me, it doesn’t matter whether the artist or subject n an art work is a man or a woman, I would consider the art work itself and the concepts behind it. It is always interesting to learn how art is used to convey messages or comment on a life situation. Within this lecture, we talked about whether Jenny Saville’s Passage piece equalizes the rights of a man and a woman, I can see the evidence for this opinion, but for me it highlighted the fact that individuals are scrutinised for being different in some way and that she was making difference accepted and depicting it in a aesthetically pleasing way, Similar ideas were running in Marc Quinns sculpture of Alison. Feminism has been portrayed in art for many years and it was interesting to learn how it has changed.


An Introduction to Painting Performance: Lecture by Andre Stitt

This purpose of this lecture was to give us an insight and introduction into painting performance and performance art as a whole.

Paul Hurley – “I fall to pieces” – Experimentica, Cardiff Nov 2014

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Human form with some sort of substance on the body. Creating a context. Many contain a narrative. The material is paint. What do all these signifiers mean? Interested in abstract movement. We are drawn to what happens to the material on the body. Personal experience of grief. There is sound. Many things are being put togetether in a live situation that we would not get from looking at a photograph. The music playing Is Patsy Klein. Is it a strange abstract dance? It is not rehersed and it is taking place in actual time. His eyes are closed, so he cannot see the viewers. Inspired by the loss of a friend, past lossed and future ones.

In this module, we are looking at a history of engagement between material substances and the human body. A kind of painting performance.

What is painting?

The practice of applying colour to a surface. The use of this activity in combination with drawing. Used to represent, document and express.

Painting as evidence – a document of the performance of painting

Painting as Process – event, performance

The focus shifts from the self contained and autonomous art towards emphasis on process and motion in art, the inclusion of the environment, as part of the artwork. Thought becomes form.

Post WWII – Painting becomes action

Jackson Pollock – 1912 -1955

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When we look at pollock, we are drawn to the act of painting. The press document with photographs and reviews. A shift from painting as an object to a spectacle. Before, paintings had tended to conceal the fact that their works were the result of process. In the 1940s and 50s, it shifted to portraying a piece that embodies themselves into the work. It becomes about process more than the outcome.

Performance Art – An action, designed and executed by an artist that takes place in time and space with or without an audience.

Kristine Stiles, American academic – “Artists who began to use their bodies as material of visual art repreatedly expressed their goal to bring art practice closer to life”. “Process over product” – Experiencing the work immmediately in the moment, presenting the work in real time. “They sought to reengage the artist and spectator by reconnecting art to social and political events”

Ideas came out of action art and performance – Fluxus, Dadaism, Futurism etc.

The Gutai Group – Japan 1955

Holes 1954 by Shozo Shimamoto born 1928 PP5 PP6

Expressed aim: To create a new type of painting.

Saburo Murakami – Work being painted by throwing a ball dipped in paint – Draws out attention to process – using paint as a material.

Shozo Shimamoto – Throw painting 1958

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Kazou Shiraga – Feet painting 1956

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Using their body, testing the limits of the body. Painting is all about test and control. Here the body is being tested and controlled.

Georges Mathieu – demonstrating action painting in a department store. It is interesting to think about the locations that action art can be made. What does it mean to make art outside the gallery? Different spaces change the context.

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William Green – deomonstrating “action” painting at the royal college of art in 1958.

There was a humour around gestural painting, William Green, A british man had only 5 minutes of fame. His work was documented by the media. Challenging what art can be and what it means to make art.

Tony Hancock – The rebel 1961 – almost becomes a parody in the press. Mocking what action painting represents. Tony Hancock was a major comedian at this time. Action painting under ridicule but becoming entertainment for others to look at those “silly artists”.

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Afrons Schilling – Paris 1961 – What is original in performance art? Has it all been done? What can a material on the body actually mean? Nowadays. Damien hirst has done similar. These early works had as much to do with style as it does with embodiment.

Yves Klein – Anthropometry 1960 – Living Paintbrushes

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This performance could be looked at as containing the objectification of naked women. It involved a male participant controlling the body of a naked woman and using her as a paint brush to paint with Klein Blue paint. Here, paint possibly has a relationship with bodily fluids.

Lee Wen – Anthropometry revision 2008

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He is talking about skin, notion of paint as skin. Links between chinese and british, colonialism. Looking at chinese identity in singapore. How you display a metaphor for something without painting an image of it.

Carolee Schneeman – puts her body where her thoughts are. Woman working in the 1960s, questioning the notion of the female body. A relation to feminine fluids and objectification. Based on the male gaze, not female gaze. The master painter points at the female and controls how he wants to see her. She reacts against this.

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Gustav Metzger – auto–destructive art action – london 1961

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“a desperate last minute submersive political weapon” – an attack on a capatist system – “performance as anti-comodification” – I am making the work, it is not for sale, it is made and that is it. Idea of destruction within it.

Nikki Saint Phalle – Shoot paintings – paris 1961

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Filled things within an assemblage with paint in pots and shoot them to make the paint drip and create the final outcome. Slightly ephemeral – early feminist artist.

Anish Kapoor – shooting in the corner London 2009

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Performative installation, canon like weapon shotting peletts of paint. In relation to the present day, this is far more accepted.

Shigeko Kubota – Vagina painting – Flux Fest

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Paint brush is loosely related to a male falice. It looks like the brush is inserted into the vagina and then being used to paint with.

Action Art – “It is rather, far more, the desire to delve deeper into the enigma of painting in order to experience it ever more richly”

How do you use paint , a material substance as a metaphor?

Gunter Brus 1964 – Viennese Aktionist – Artist placed in a vulnerable position and drawing attention to that.

Herman Nitsch – Painting installation – Jerusalem 1995 – conflict, relations to blood

Stuart Brisley – Performance, Poland 1975 – After the performance, he created a more traditional painting illustrating elements of the process. All of the rags used to clean the body are painted realistically.

Paint as a substance that becomes a mediator to channel ideas and concepts.

Robert Smithson – Asphalt ran down, Italy 1969 – work is more spectacular in the process to create it. It is about environmental issues.

Ian Mckeever – Painting for a hole in the ground

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The gestures and marks on the painting have a correlation with the landscape.

Richard Jackson – from a series of 100 drawings 1978

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Imagery of a clock spreading paint, and windscreen wipers spreading paintbrushes. In 2003, he drove a moped through paint on canvas

Paul McCarthy – Face Painting – Floor White Line. Architectural Surfaces and the human changing the space. Whipping a wall and a window with paint 1972. People would just happen upon this piece. How do you control a blanket. Is it about human control or not being able to control it?

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Paul McCarthy – Red Penis Painting 1972 – If we didn’t know It was painted with a penis, would it be as interesting?

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Paul McCarthy – Painter (Film) – reference to William Dekuning – What does it mean to make art? Is it an illusion? Can it be both serious and humourous?

Janine Antoni – “Loving Care” 1992-96 – strong relation to hair dye. Using her hair to paint with. A context with women’s cosmetics.

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Keith Boadwee – Inserting paint into his anus an squirting it out. Paint Enema’s. Making asshole abstractions.

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Performance artist – John Court 2006 – Had buckets of paint poured on him and lay there still until it dried. It took 8 hours to performance. Text as gesture is evident here, it is about communication. He is incredibly dyslexic. Writing Art forwards and backwards. Writing with left hand. Making the work more difficult to make. Disability/Inhability to communicate, so he is doing it through action. In terms of documentation, he creates time lapses, condensing a six hour performance into 10 mins.

There is a relationship between performance and contemporary drawing. 

Painting Performance – Belfast 1977 – Andre Stitt Himself put black plastic down and flung paint around, for him it was about anger and using paint to embody the anger at civil war. He didn’t have a knowledge of a history of performance, he just thought about the relationship between the body and paintings.

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Andre Stitt – Burning Paintings Performance 1978. It is important for us to think about why we make art.

MODERNISM – intervention in art.  With its avant garde advances, and the development of gesture as a performative intervention in art, in the form of an autonomous construct – achieved.

Making a performance is a precious thing. Freedom, Childs play, imancipation, being in a moment. An awareness that we will break the idea of self-conciousness creating performance painting.

 Cy Twombley: Untitled No.10 – textural mark making 2004

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Anastasia Ax – Paint Performance, Oslo 2010 – Space, Architectural concerns, self contained worlds in which we as observers experience the live act and the material artefact, whats left.

Alexis Harding – paint falling off the canvas onto the floor – pulmonary 2006

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How do Artists use materials to create contemporary performance and bring it into the art world?

Performance > Interaction > Painterly Mobility

Painting Performance Key Words – Surface, Tension, Skin, Pigment, Viscera, Fluid, Emotional Expulsion, Pushing/Pulling, Dipping, Dripping, Spilling, Flinging, Layering, Coating, Spraying, Dragging and Sloshing

These are all ways of experimenting that could be applied to any practice, whether it is painting or sculpture or performance etc.

Many Ideas about performance art have arisen to me from this Lecture. I gained Ideas from both the tutors own work and the work of other artists.

I have learnt about:
The Gravity of the body and How the Body Works
The use of unconventional materials
Getting art made quickly and the speed of documenting performance
Photography capturing action, paint in mid air etc
Using your experience in performance to create art on canvas
When to make work, the time of day
Weather conditions controlling outdoor performance
To think about how a performance can portray concepts and people can make their own interpretation to the work just as they would when viewing a painting.

Lynda Benglis: Studio, New York 1968
Concerned with conceptualism
Painters started thinking of new ways to apply paint and incorporated unconventional materials.

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There are many interesting ideas as work in performance art and paint performance – to unpack thinking about the human body, materiality, paint as a material, how the paint is applied, movement, etc.


CONSTELLATION: Post- Colonialism, Multi-Culturalism and Globalisation

GLOBILISATION

Art Basel, Miami Beach 2012
Globalisation is primarily business driven. In the art world, there’s international art shows and fairs. Art is now on a global scale.

Should art look like the place that it comes from? Should Welsh art look welsh? Should chinese art look chinese?

Is international art becoming bigger, making it freer for artists to express themselves or is it taking work away from it’s heritage?

MULTICULTURALISM

Multi-Culturalism is the idea of looking for art that might reflect different experiences of members of society without prioritising one over the other.

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Brian Jungen – Prototype for new understanding #16 and #21

Native american masks made out of Nike Trainers – Doesn’t judge Nike and is in favour of local comprimise.

POST COLONIALISM

Same Perspective but from people outside Europe

Shigeyuki Kihara – Culture for sale 2012

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Brings a relationship between the west and the non-west into the subject matter of the art. Often, an acceptance of Loss is present in post colonial art.

Diaspere – people moving across the globe, leaving their culture behind. People have more than one identity. The thought of “Where do I belong?”

Identity is at the heart of all three of these elements.

To what extent is a person’s ethnic identity a matter of choice? When do you decide to call yourself an ethicity? Is it heritage? Where you live? Has It been highlighted because you moved from your birth country or family country?

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Adrian Piper – Self-Portrait – Exaggerating my Negroid Features 1981 – untruthful in a sense. It is her, but it also isn’t.

Jimmie Durham – My Blood 1991 – Interested in notions of authenticity and what is means to make native american art. The question of where people belong is often a subject matter of their art.

Jitish Kallat – Humilation Tax 2004-5, Pain, Pleasure, Pause, Proceed 2002. Rickhawpolis 2006-7.

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This artist finds an artistic expression for the city of mumbai as a whole. In his eclipse pieces – He depicts street children and each of them carry the city depicted as their hair. Some people are uneasy about the smiling children – Bartoleme Esteban Murillo – Peasant boy resting on a sill 1670-80. These painting were made to show the rich who bought the paintings that the poor were alright. People have related this to Kallat’s work as mostly a criticism.

Amrit Singh and Robindra Singh – Nyrmla’s Wedding II 1985-6. Born in London but brought up in a Sikh household. Highlighting the issues of multi-Culturalism. For example, one twin is painting Hena on the brides hand and the other is recording on a western digital device. All hands on deck 1997 – within it, a man whering a man united shirt and a turban. Draws on serious issues.

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Robindra Singh – Some like it hot (Burning Desire) 2003 – The twins don’t have a very high critical reputation and it is claimed they are not serious enough. Theme of bringing western culture into sikh tradition but also bringing co-existence to light and doing it in a humourous way.

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The pattern paisley – Traditionally is both a scottish and indian pattern

There is also an official singh tartan – a connection between the sikh and the scottish culture

Imran quereshi – Blessings upon the Land of my Love, 2011

An enclosure full of blood stains. A way of memorialising the dead in pakistan.

Roof Garden Commision – Metropolitan Museum of Art – Something horrific and beautiful at the same time. You can only understand the horror if you can comprehend the beauty of what has been lost.

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Chris Offili – Afrodizzia (2nd Version) 1996 – Abstract decorative pattern routed by elephant dung. Real depth within the piece. He also made works called shithead and shit sale pondering what to do with elephant dung. He came up with the idea of varnishing them, making them into a decorative object and making them functional by using them to hold paintings up off the floor. He tries to make people laugh and is happy to offend and exploit white stereotypes of black people.

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Chris Offili – Blue Rider’s, 2007

Kandinsky and others published a journal called Blue rider that didn’t distinguish between anything. European and non european for example. In the artworld or not. Intimidating – thinking about the white viewer in the gallery and putting us in a position that other cultures have been in for centuries.

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Yinka Shonibare MBE – Double Dutch 1994

They are minimalist in layout, size, but not In colour or ethnicity. They are paintings of african textiles that are self-conciously exotic. Victiorian Couple 1999 – reproduces european tailoring with material significant of africa. “His work tricks the mind, by first making it comfortable with its own contradiction, innocence and ignorance and then by quickly deflating these sentiments”. Big Boy 2002 – as well as african/european, he mixes up male and female and his newer work is more flamboyant. The richness of Britain is built on the exploitation of other colonies. These works bring this to light.

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Sharin Neshat – Women of Allah: Rebellious Silence 1994. Speechless 1996 – Looking at western ideas of muslim women. Covering up and secrecy. Some of her works are herself. Offered eyes 1993 – The writing and photography do not fit. The poem isn’t about eyes or sight, it is about a garden and articulates the space between. Turbulent 1998 – Two Screens on either end of the wall – facing each other when in the space. Non-hemoginisation. Heightening tension between the man and the woman. Each Video is a direct contrast to the other. The woman’s body is talking rather than a mans mind. Camera still on man, moving on woman. Making us aware of the space between them.

Mona Hatoum – The negotiating table – 3 hour performance – 1983

Contrasted with Yinka Shonibare’s scramble for africa. Mona Hatoum’s piece – Present Tense has cultural significance. It is made up of Lumps of Soap with beads pressed into it. These materials are both characteristically palestine. It shows a map of occupied terrotories in Israel. Left in the air in palestine, it would deteriorate and when the soap disappears, the beads no longer follow the lines. Signifying liberation to a better future.

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Mona Hatoum – Measures of Distance – 15 mins 1988

Full of Indexical Signs. Things that could only be made by a particular person. When we miss someone, we turn to indexical signs.

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This lecture has given me an insight into the relationship between cultures. It has also showed me how powerful art can be in getting a message across about the contrast between cultures. The visual allows us to understand the lives other members of society with different ethnicities and the things that they face.


ROMANTIC LANDSCAPES: A lecture by Jon Clarkson

What is my place in the world?

Do I belong there?

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Caspar David Friedrich – Monk by the Sea

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Comparing it to a classical Landscape – Richard Wilson, The White Monk 1760-65

Caspar David Friedrich – Morning in the Sudeten Mountains 1810-11

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How does Friedrich’s painting differ from wilsons? Colour palette, mood.

How do the painters think about religion?

Wilson seems more distant from religion than Friedrich. Friedrich is thinking of religion organising our relationship with the natural world.

In Caspar David Friedrich – Monk by the Sea – What time of day is it?

Written about as a lightless dawn. For the monk, the dawn isn’t important as it is for the pair on the mountain in the other piece.

Do you think that this place is real or imaginary?

It is a culmination of experience . Long flat horizon. Empty paintings.

Jan Van Goyen – View of Harlem 1646

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Alternating pattern of light and dark, Colours lighter in the distance, more full of colour in the foreground. There is more cloud perspective than in friedrichs work. Friedrich’s is much flatter. Distance becomes flatter and more immense because there are no markers in it.

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Mark Rothko 1969 – Is there still distance in this picture? Does it look like a place to you? There are similarities to Friedrich’s work. It is stark and there is a fluctuation between flatness and deep space.

There is a lot of fine detail in Friedrich’s Monk by the sea. It makes it look more like a portrait of the place. When you notice a painting has fine detail, you walk in closer to it. Having an intimate relationship with the work. The artist must be thinking about where he wants the spectator to be. The monk isn’t entirely resolved in himself.

What is the relationship between these figures and their surroundings?

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Caspar David Friedrich – The wanderer above the sea of mist

The figure is taking possession of a view, dominating the landscape. He wants to be there and he is in control.

Caspar David Friedrich Chasseur in the Forest

The Chasseur in the Forest 1814

The landscape is dominating the figure here, he has no horse, he is lost and not in control. He’s french, the forest is german. Friedrich is a nationalist. German land rising up against the french invaders. Vulnerable.

Romantic Woodland circa 1824-5 by Francis Danby 1793-1861

Francis Danby – Romantic Woodland landscape 1824-5

Will nature accept us? Romantics think of nature in a more psychological way than an ecological way.

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Anselm Kiefer, Varus 1976 – For Kiefer, Germany begins with Slaughter in the forest.

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Marina Neudecker – Things can change in a day 2009

Models in vitrines suspended in liquid. Does the vitrine intensify the situation or distance you from it? Like a cinema screen, they encourage you to project yourself into the scene.

How does a group rather than a solitary figure alter the confrontation with nature?

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Caspar David Friedrich – Chalk Cliffs at Rugen 1818 – less vulnerable, more people – However, not a strong sense of communication.


Anya Gallacio: The Use of Organic Matter

As I am using organic matter within my work, I feel it is appropriate to research artist’s that do the same. Anya Gallacio is a British Artist. Much of her work uses organic materials, with fruit, vegetables, flowers, leaves, branches and trees all featuring in her work. Sometimes these materials undergo a change during the course their being exhibited.

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Even though she is a sculpture and installation artist, her work is still relevant to mine as it has made me more aware of the fact that some forms of nature that I may use within my work may die and change the appearance of the work.

In some of Anya Gallacio’s works the natural course of transformation is stopped. Sprouting potatoes and broad bean pods, branches and whole tree trunks are reproduced in bronze, their lives prolonged indefinitely. This makes me think about how the sticks and leaves that I have found on the ground have been given a new lease of life and purpose being part of my artwork.

Referring to her work as inspiration for my own, I will continue to incorporate natural matter into my artwork. Her work is so confident and colossal that it makes me worry less about the outcome and think more about process and the organic matter than I am sticking onto the surface or mixing into my paint.


CLASSICAL LANDSCAPE: A Lecture by Jon Clarkson

Is the Visible World enough?

Classical Landscape is a name given to a type of painting – developed in the 17th century. Related to History Painting. Some have narratives and some don’t. Mood and atmosphere is conveyed within the paintings

Is the artists job simply to record the appearance of the world, or to transform it?

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Nicolas Poussin – Landscape with a Calm 1650-1. Based in Rome. Peaceful/neutral. More movement in the sky, contrasted with a static lake and a still and calm foreground. The people are small and insignificant in comparison to nature. A vision of an ordered, harmonious society.

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Nicolas Poussin – Landscape with St.John on Patmas 1640
Is the relation betweeen humans and nature the same as in the Landscape with a calm? How is history represented?
It is more like land left behind. Have humans taken advantage? Have they moved on? Even though, John is sitting, he is not really entwined into the work like the people in the other piece.

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Nicolas Poussin – Landscape with the body of Phocion – carried out of Athens 1648. This has a narrative. Alternatiing bands of dark and light. Neverending path it seems. The city is close enough to be important in the painting, but far enough away that we stop being able to see how we could get there. There is a complicated visual access to the city

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Nicolas Poussin – A Roman road. An announcement of technological Power. Political, This kind of depth, perspective is highly technologically advanced for the 17th Century

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Charles Sheeler – Classic Landscape 1931
Where is the nature in this Landscape?
It has gone, However: there is natural organisation in the pile of earth and sand

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Charles Sheerler – American Landscape 1930
Is he being ironic calling this a landscape? Even though there is no nature within the picture, it is a man-made landscape. Does he want us to find these scenes beautiful or ugly? Brighter lighting, reflections, some bright colours, making it look more appealing but very geometric.

Scenes from the Passion: Late 2002 by George Shaw born 1966

George Shaw – Scenes from a Passion: 2002: Paints areas where he grew up. A question is posed about the conventions we use to describe reality

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George Shaw – The blocked Drain – 2010
(not a version of Poussins roman road) but does our knowledge of it affect how we view this?
The first road seems new and innovative. George Shaws seems barren and disregarded.

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Gregory Crewdsen, The madison 2007
Takes still photos, but like a hollywood movie. The road is always the same road continuing. Imagining the thoughts of the landscape from the figures perspective.

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Gregory Crewdsen, untitled (Beneath the roses) 2007
What is the relation between nature and culture here?
Organic elements separate from man made, degraded nature. The nature is not lush greenery, it is weeds. Could be hopeful after destruction, is nature reclaiming it?

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Gregory Crewdsen – Beneath the roses 2006
Beneath the surface, looking deeper, a metaphor?
Relationship between the two people – could they be lovers? Could be an attacker and she is a victim. Soothing or disturbing? Degraded nature again and disturbing elements.
Nicolas Poussin – Echo and harcissus 1630

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Eduardo Manet – Le dejuner sur (l’herbe 1863)
Do these paintings change the way that we look at Crewdsen’s photographs? In what way?